It occurs in all 50 states of the US and most Canadian provinces. Those cheerful yellow flowers are everywhere in spring. Registered charity number 207238. Taraxacum laevigatum (syn. The plants introduced to North America are triploids that reproduce by obligate gametophytic apomixis[13][18] Some authorities recognize three subspecies of Taraxacum officinale including:[19][20], Two of them have been introduced and established in Alaska and the third (ssp. Common Name: Dandelion - Kukraundha, Kanphool, Common dandelion, Dandelion: Family: Asteraceae or Compositae : USDA hardiness: 5-9: Known Hazards: This plant has been mentioned in various books on poisonous plants but any possible toxins will be of very low concentration and toxicity[10]. [29], Carl Linnaeus named the species Leontodon taraxacum in 1753. Common dandelions, native to Europe and Asia, produce many wind dispersed seeds that easily spread over large areas. Common Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale ssp. An annoyance, perhaps, but far from being aggressively spreading plants that alter natural habitats, the hallmark of a truly invasive species. Types of Dandelions: White Found growing natively in eastern, central and southern Asia, notably in Korea and Japan, the white dandelion (Taraxacum albidum), or … – dandelion Species: Taraxacum officinale F.H. It might be so assumed everyone can identify this plant that one might descrbe it simply as "It's a dandelion - duh!" The first group reproduces sexually, as do most seed plants. The taxonomy of the genus Taraxacum is complicated by apomictic and polyploid lineages, and the taxonomy and nomenclatural situation of Taraxacum officinale is not yet fully resolved. Even though dandelion pollen is of poor nutritional quality for honey bees, they readily consume it, and it can be an important source of nutritional diversity in heavily managed monocultures such as that of blueberries. The yellow flower heads lack receptacle bracts and all the flowers, which are called florets, are ligulate and bisexual. [24] It is considered a noxious weed in some jurisdictions,[33] and is considered to be a nuisance in residential and recreational lawns in North America. The plant forms a rosette with strongly toothed leaves and the stems are hollow with on top a flower head consisting of many yellow ray florets. IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : Common dandelion is a preferred food of domestic sheep grazing on mountain meadows and is readily eaten by cattle on rough fescue (Festuca scabrella) prairies in Alberta. [53] It may be related to the Greek word ταρασσω (tarasso) meaning to disturb. In part, this is due to the fact that most people can easily recognize dandelions and that they are accessible almost everywhere. Taraxacum Species, Common Dandelion Taraxacum officinale. [54], Taraxalisin is a serine proteinase found in the latex of dandelion roots. Other common names: Blowball Other scientific names: Leontodon taraxacum, Taraxacum dens-leonis, Taraxacum taraxacum, Taraxacum vulgare French names: Pissenlit officinal Family: Composite Family (Asteraceae) Group: Dandelions Similar species: • Marsh Dandelion (Taraxacum palustre) - Sepals are not recurved downward. These scientific names are the combination of two terms: the genus and the species. These European dandelions can be divided into two groups. The common dandelion is a well-known common weed of lawns, roadsides, and other disturbed places. Originally from Europe, it occurs nearly worldwide. Broken stems emit a white, sticky substance. ssp. Dandelions can be found in bloom, scattered here and there throughout the growing season. For example, Rothmaler's flora of Germany recognizes roughly 70 microspecies. Schinz & R. Keller : Taraxacum palustre var. Each flower is composed of dozens or hundreds of florets. The common dandelion is actually a variety of forms or 'microspecies' and there are also a number of other dandelion species, so identification can be tricky. The taproot can be boiled and eaten or dried and ground as a base for a hot drink. Cambridge University Press. Hedgerow Type: Common Names: Dandelion, Dent-de lion, Pissabed, Piss-en-lit : Scientific Name: Taraxacum officinale : Season Start: Jan : Season End: Dec : Please note that each and every hedgerow item you come across may vary in appearance to these photos. [25], Taraxacum officinale has many English common names (some of which are no longer in use), including blowball, lion's-tooth, cankerwort, milk-witch, yellow-gowan, Irish daisy, monks-head, priest's-crown and puff-ball;[26] other common names include, faceclock, pee-a-bed, wet-a-bed,[27] swine's snout,[28] white endive, and wild endive. The leaves are high in beta-carotene, vitamin C and iron. in height. Sexual reproduction involves a reduction of the somatic chromosome number by meiosis followed by a restoration of the somatic chromosome number by fertilization. ceratophorum) is native there.[24]. Dandelions may seem humdrum, but their genus has roughly 40 species – including some plants with red flowers and others in danger of extinction. In April they almost dominate the landscape. [34] It is also an important weed in agriculture and causes significant economic damage because of its infestation in many crops worldwide. Taraxacum officinale is a ruderal species, which can be commonly found in highly urbanized areas. [25], The second group consists of polyploid (mostly triploid) apomicts, meaning that both a viable embryo as well as a functional endosperm is formed without prior fertilization. ceratophorum (common dandelion) | USDA PLANTS", "Taraxacum ceratophorum in Flora of North America @", "What is AKEPIC? For example, Rothmaler's flora of Germany recognizes roughly 70 microspecies. Seeds are carried by the wind. Taraxacum officinale L. (dandelion) is a vigorous weed in Europe with diploid sexual populations in the southern regions and partially overlapping populations of diploid sexuals and triploid or tetraploid apomicts in the central and northern regions. 36 more photos VIEW GALLERY. The common dandelion is a most familiar flower: counting down the 'clock', while blowing the fluffy seeds from its head, is a favourite childhood game. … The genus is native to Eurasia and North America, but the two commonplace species worldwide, T. officinale and T. erythrospermum, were introduced from Europe and now propagate as wildflowers. [5][6][7][8] The name "blowball" has also been used.[9]. Both species are edible in their entirety. officinale) Although Katmai has multiple species of native dandelions, the common dandelion is a threatening invasive in the park. You'll get a fun kids wildlife magazine packed…, The Wildlife Trusts: Protecting Wildlife for the Future. As a common species dandelion requires no conservation measures to secure its occurrence. [17] Common dandelion is the familiar weed of lawns and roadsides. [11], The leaves are 5–45 cm (2.0–17.7 in) long and 1–10 cm (0.39–3.94 in) wide, and are oblanceolate, oblong, or obovate in shape, with the bases gradually narrowing to the petiole. [36] The seeds remain viable in the seed bank for many years, with one study showing germination after nine years. The common dandelion is well known for its yellow flower heads that turn into round balls of silver-tufted fruits that disperse in the wind. It is often thought of as a 'weed' of grassy places. The stems can be glabrous or sparsely covered with short hairs. [44] The flowers are used to make dandelion wine,[45] the greens are used in salads, the roots have been used to make a coffee substitute (when baked and ground into powder) and the plant was used by Native Americans as a food and medicine. General Description: Probably the most well know of all wildflowers, the common dandelion measures an average of 5-45 cm. [46], Dandelions are harvested from the wild or grown on a small scale as a leaf vegetable. [33], T. officinale can serve as an indicator plant for soil potassium and calcium, as the plant favours soils deficient in the latter but rich in the former. Wigg. [13] The taxonomy of this genus has been complicated by the recognition of numerous species,[16] subspecies and microspecies. Gledhill, David (2008). [43], While the dandelion is considered a weed by most gardeners and especially lawn owners, the plant has several culinary uses. Taraxacum officinale, the common dandelion[4] (often simply called "dandelion"), is a flowering herbaceous perennial plant of the family Asteraceae (Compositae). Native to Europe, it has spread nearly worldwide. [32] It is now naturalized throughout North America, southern Africa, South America, New Zealand, Australia, and India. T. officinale is considered a weed, especially in lawns and along roadsides, but it is sometimes used as a medical herb and in food preparation. This species is a somewhat prolific seed producer, with 54 to 172 seeds produced per head, and a single plant can produce more than 5,000 seeds a year. T. officinale is food for the caterpillars of several Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths), such as the tortrix moth Celypha rufana. Raw leaves have a slightly bitter taste. Plants have milky latex and the leaves are all basal; each flowering stem lacks bracts and has one single flower head. Wigg. Dandelion leaves contain a lot of vitamins. "The Names of Plants". • Red-seeded Dandelion (Taraxacum erythrospermum) Also, dandelion is highly nutritious. Although it’s considered to be an invasive weed, these dandelions have value as a medicinal and culinary herb. Take a look at Dandelion family classification in the upcoming sections. Wigg. Dandelions are not as invasive as commonly thought. The plants are adaptable to most soils and the seeds are not dependent on cold temperatures before they will germinate but they need to be within the top 2.5 cm (1 in) of soil.[24]. ceratophorum (Ledeb.) The scientific name of Dandelion is Taraxacum while its common name is Dandelion. [52], Taraxacum is derived from the Arabic word tarakhshagog (or tarakhshaqūn) for a bitter herb. The fruits, called cypselae,[12] range in color from olive-green or olive-brown to straw-colored to grayish, they are oblanceoloid in shape and 2–3 mm (0.079–0.118 in) long with slender beaks. Plants typically have 24 or 40 pairs of chromosomes, while some have 16 or 32 pairs. vulgare (Lam.) Common dandelion is distinguished from other plants by the presence of milky juice, lobed or divided leaves in the rosette stage, the soft texture and irregular lobing of leaves, the absence of prickles on margins or midribs, the smooth or softly hairy leaf surfaces, and a deeply penetrating taproot. [53][verification needed], The Latin specific epithet officinale refers to the Latin word for 'medicinal' or 'of the apothecaries'. Nowadays it is used, for example, in salads. They are probably closest in character to mustard greens. Here are some of the more common varieties of dandelion plants: Common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) is the familiar, bright yellow dandelion that pops up along roadsides, in meadows, along riverbanks, and of course, in lawns. Gibbons, E. Stalking the Wild Asparagus. T. erythrospermum), Red-seeded Dandelion; achenes reddish brown and leaves deeply cut throughout length. These balls are usually called "clocks" in both British and American English. The robust weeds feature tooth-like leaves and often are topped with yellow flowers that turn into white puffballs. View gallery. The species is native to Europe and Asia but can be found worldwide in temperate climates (Berg, 2007). [47] Most of these are more accurately described as "dandelion-flavored wine," as some other sort of fermented juice or extract serves as the main ingredient. Common dandelion plants can be distinguished because young leaves do not have hairs, whereas cat's ear dandelion leaves have dense hairs. Though they’re non-native to North America (originally hailing from Europe), dandelions are not considered invasive by federal agencies. The common name dandelion (/ˈdændɪlaɪ.ən/ DAN-di-ly-ən, from French dent-de-lion, meaning "lion's tooth") is given to members of the g… [55] Rudenskaya et al. Seed heads are about the size of a golf ball, perfectly round, grayish-white. Chijinshokan, Tokyo (in Jpn) JWRC (ed) (2008) A Photographic Guide to the Invasive Alien Species in Japan. Its blooms resemble some of the species of Sonchus, but are larger. List of Lepidoptera that feed on dandelions, "Tropicos - Name - !Taraxacum officinale F.H. The florets number 40 to over 100 per head, having corollas that are yellow or orange-yellow in color. [13], The taxonomy of the genus Taraxacum is complicated by apomictic and polyploid lineages,[14][15] and the taxonomy and nomenclatural situation of Taraxacum officinale is not yet fully resolved. There are many myths and mysteries about dandelions, including the belief that picking them will cause incontinence. The plants introduced to North America are triploids that reproduce by obligate gametophytic apomixis Some authorities recogni… It is estimated that more than 97,000,000 seeds/hectare could be produced yearly by a dense stand of dandelions. [40], While not in bloom, this species is sometimes confused with others, such as Chondrilla juncea, that have similar basal rosettes of foliage. The lanceolate shaped bractlets are in two series, with the apices acuminate in shape. Click below on a thumbnail map or name for subspecies profiles. The radially symmetrical flowerhead of the common dandelion is bright yellow and singularly arranged atop the terminal shoot of … [35], The dandelion is a common colonizer of disturbed habitats, both from wind blown seeds and seed germination from the seed bank. Another recipe using the plant is dandelion flower jam. [50], Dandelion has been used in traditional medicine in Europe, North America, and China. The taxonomy of this genus has been complicated by the recognition of numerous species, subspecies and microspecies. Although dandelion is considered a weed, it has had several different uses. [51], Yellow dye colors can be obtained from the flowers but little color can be obtained from the roots of the plant. Inner bracts' tips are hooded. datasets have provided data to the NBN Atlas for this microspecies.. Browse the list of datasets and find organisations you can join if you are interested in participating in a survey for species … It grows in temperate regions of the world, in lawns, on roadsides, on disturbed banks and shores of waterways, and other areas with moist soils. [48] It has also been used in a saison ale called Pissenlit (the French word for dandelion, literally meaning "wet the bed") made by Brasserie Fantôme in Belgium. However pairing is still sufficient to allow some recombination between homologous chromosomes. Family: Asteraceae (ass-ter-AY-see-ee) Genus: Taraxacum (ta-RAKS-uh-kum) Species: officinale (oh-fiss-ih-NAH-lee) Synonym: Chondrilla taraxacum: Synonym: Leontodon taraxacum: 38 members have or want this plant for trade. Dandelion is a highly useful green and seed to collect for the rehabber pantry. Dandelion flowers can be used to make dandelion wine, for which there are many recipes. Fernald : Common Name(s): common dandelion [English] blowball [English] faceclock [English] dandelion [English] Taxonomic Status: Current Standing: accepted Our commitment to Equality, Diversity & Inclusion (EDI), Different types of protected wildlife sites. Taraxacum is a large genus of flowering plants in the family Asteraceae, which consists of species commonly known as dandelions. At one time its parts were used as medicinal herbs, coffee substitute and in textile dyeing. Species : Synonym(s): Taraxacum kok-saghyz auct. The specific name officinalis refers to its value as a medicinal herb, and is derived from the word opificina, later officina, meaning a workshop or pharmacy. David McKay, New York. It is a minor component of bighorn ssp. The 14–25 mm (0.55–0.98 in) wide involucres are green to dark green or brownish-green, with the tips dark gray or purplish. Dandelion and burdock is a soft drink that has long been popular in the United Kingdom. Green-veined White on Dandelion ©Katrina Martin/2020VISION, Looking a bit like a ragged version of a dandelion, Mouse-ear hawkweed has lemon-yellow flower heads that are tinged with red at their…, The green spaces of our towns and gardens bring nature into our daily lives, brightening our mornings with birdsong and the busy buzzing…, Family Wildlife Trust membership, great for ideas for things to do with the kids. The leaf margins are typically shallowly lobed to deeply lobed and often lacerate or toothed with sharp or dull teeth.[10]. Reference: Notes: Ecol Soc Jpn (ed) (2002) Handbook of Alien Species in Japan. Diploid dandelions have eight pairs of chromosomes, and meiosis is regular with normal pairing of homologous chromosomes at the metaphase I stage of meiosis. Species Detail - Common Dandelion (Taraxacum polyodon) - Species information displayed is based on all datasets. Ground roasted dandelion root can be used as a non-caffeinated coffee substitute. Dandelion is a European species that has made itself at home throughout North America. Usually the young leaves and unopened buds are eaten raw in salads, while older leaves are cooked. × Nevertheless, look for the familiar yellow flower heads displaying closely packed florets (tiny flowers). Dandelions are well-known, robust weeds; the common name derives from the French ' dent de lion ', meaning 'lion's tooth', which refers to the deeply toothed, deep green leaves (4), … Cat's ear dandelion is similar to common dandelion. The Common Dandelion is common and widespread throughout the UK, Ireland a much of Europe. Nevertheless, look for the familiar yellow flower heads displaying closely packed florets (tiny flowers). Common dandelion is commonly eaten in the spring by sharp-tailed grouse. [56] Maximal activity of the proteinase in the roots is attained in April, at the beginning of plant development after the winter period. See also List of Lepidoptera that feed on dandelions. non Rodin : Taraxacum vulgare Lam. [49], T. officinale's diuretic properties have been well described, with the leaves of this plant having been used for this purpose in traditional Chinese medicine for approximately 2,000 years, with other regions of the world using the plant in the same way; in French, a common name for T. officinale is pissenlit, 'a colorful description of its diuretic activity.' The leaves of the Common Dandelion are lobed and spoon-shaped, and the stem exudes a milky white sap if it is broken. The Wildlife Trusts is a movement made up of 46 Wildlife Trusts: independent charities with a shared mission. Subspecies Taraxacum officinale F.H. In contrast to the sexual diploids, the pairing of chromosomes at metaphase I in triploid apomicts is strongly reduced. – common dandelion Subordinate Taxa. Dandelion salad is often accompanied with hard-boiled eggs. There are around three hundred different species and they grow in the temperate regions of Europe, Asia, and North America but are also found in most areas of the world including Canada, New Zealand and Australia. The calyculi (the cuplike bracts that hold the florets) are composed of 12 to 18 segments: each segment is reflexed and sometimes glaucous. Category: Perennials. Taraxacum officinale ssp. A menace to gardeners and homeowners looking for a lush, green lawn, this plant can also be cultivated or foraged as food. Wigg", "Taraxacum campylodes G.E.Haglund — The Plant List", "Definition of "blowball" - Collins English Dictionary", "dandelion clock - Definition from Longman English Dictionary Online", "Clock dictionary definition - clock defined", "Competition for pollinators and intra-communal spectral dissimilarity of flowers", "Taraxacum officinale in Flora of North America @", "Ecological and evolutionary opportunities of apomixis: insights from, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, "ITIS Standard Report Page: Taraxacum officinale", "PLANTS Profile for Taraxacum officinale ssp. This group consists of dandelions that have a diploid set of chromosomes, and are sexually self-incompatible. [37] When released, the seeds can be spread by the wind up to several hundred meters from their source. Leaves . The young leaves can be eaten raw or cooked. (1998) found that taraxalisin hydrolyzes a chromogenic peptide substrate Glp-Ala-Ala-Leu-pNA optimally at pH 8.0. Both species are edible in their entirety. There are up to two hundred and thirty five micro species of dandelion all lumped under the Taraxacum officinale name. [41] Another plant, sometimes referred to as fall dandelion, is very similar to dandelion, but produces "yellow fields" later. A study conducted in 2009 noted 'promising' results regarding these diuretic properties, but that further studies would need to be conducted into the plant's efficacy. Species Detail - Common Dandelion (Taraxacum polyodon) - Species information displayed is based on the dataset "BSBI tetrad data for Ireland". [30], Taraxacum officinale is native to Europe and Asia,[31] and was originally imported to America as a food crop. 117. Wigg. [42], T. officinale has a fossil record that goes back to glacial and interglacial times in Europe. Dandelion is a hardy perennial plant. In Silesia and other parts of Poland and the world, dandelion flowers are used to make a honey substitute syrup with added lemon (so-called May-honey). The Common Dandelion is actually a variety of forms or 'microspecies' and there are also a number of other Dandelion species, so identification can be tricky. The silky pappi, which form the parachutes, are white to silver-white in color and around 6 mm wide. Taraxacum officinale G. H. Weber ex Wiggers", "Taraxacum officinale complex (dandelion)", "The Diuretic Effect in Human Subjects of an Extract of Taraxacum officinale Folium over a Single Day", Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation,, Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages using multiple image with auto scaled images, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2020, Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from April 2018, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 28 November 2020, at 11:08. The dandelion does not exist of a single species, but of an agglomeration of many micro species, which is partly the result of its possibility of multiplication by means of unfertilized seeds (cloning). The stems can be tinted purplish, they are upright or lax, and produce flower heads that are held as tall or taller than the foliage. Taraxacum officinale grows from generally unbranched taproots and produces one to more than ten stems that are typically 5–40 cm (2.0–15.7 in) tall, but sometimes up to 70 cm (28 in) tall. × Terrestrial Map - 10km. The leaves (called dandelion greens) can be eaten cooked or raw in various forms, such as in soup or salad. The fruits have 4 to 12 ribs that have sharp edges. 1962. [30] The common name dandelion comes from the French dent de lion, or "lion's tooth", in reference to the plant's jagged-edged leaves. Taraxacum F.H. The common name dandelion (/ˈdændᵻlaɪ.ən/ DAN-di-ly-ən, from French dent-de-lion, meaning "lion's tooth") is given to members of the genus. Dandelions are members of the aster family, and their deep yellow flowerheads, ¾-1¾" (1.9-4.4 cm) across, resemble other asters. Also known as lion's tooth, priest's crown, swine's snout, fairy clock and pissenlit (pee-the-bed). View this plant in a garden. Also see Dandelion … The common dandelion or Taraxacum officinale is a herbaceous perennial plant belonging to the family of the Asteraceae. [citation needed]. The foliage may be upright-growing or horizontally spreading; the leaves have petioles that are either unwinged or narrowly winged. | Alaska Natural Heritage Program", "The biology of Canadian weeds. vulgare (Lam.) officinale – common dandelion P Enter a scientific or common name at any rank. [56], Species of flowering plant in the daisy family Asteraceae, Dandelion flower (left) and ripe fruits (right), 1897 illustration from Franz Eugen Köhler, Köhler's Medizinal-Pflanzen. The current genus name Taraxacum derives possibly from the Arabic Tharakhchakon,[10] or from the Greek Tarraxos. – common dandelion P Subspecies Taraxacum officinale F.H. The Plants Database includes the following 2 subspecies of Taraxacum officinale . This is without a doubt the most commonly encountered and widely recognized plant species across all age groups and skill levels. [38][39] Honey bees have not been shown to lower their pollination activity on nearby fruit crops when foraging on dandelions. Schinz ex Thell. The seeds are also a common contaminant in crop and forage seeds. While dandelions make lawn care m In many lineages, fruits are mostly produced by apomixis,[10] notwithstanding the flowers are visited by many types of insects.
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