Data derived from Giri et al. Mexico is one of five countries home to the biggest mangrove wetlands in the world. Data derived from Giri et al. As the sea levels continue to rise, urban areas in Mexico are the victim to heavy flooding because they were built on top of what used to be mangrove land. Most of the mangrove forestation is in the Indian Ocean, whether it be on the coasts of India or surrounding the islands of Indonesia (see Locations of Forests). Famous for their tangle of roots sticking up from the ground and dropping down from branches, mangrove forests can grow out into the sea and create almost impenetrable mazes of narrow channels along shorelines. Figure redrawn from Webb et al. 2007) and delivery of upland sediments to these ecosystems (Golbuu et al. Enter your email address below and we will send you your username, If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username. Any use of trade, firm, or product names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government. These factors are inter‐related and spatially variable on inter‐regional scales (climate, geomorphology, biodiversity, … Recent expansion (1 site in 2005, all others between 2013 and 2015) of historical (~100 yr) sediment accretion data from, Distribution of mangroves and the location of mangrove RSETs in North America and the Caribbean. 2007). In Australia increases in temperature combined with sedimentation and SLR have resulted in expansion of mangroves into areas previously dominated by salt marsh although no latitudinal expansion. 2006). RHD is supported by the U.S. Geological Survey's Ecosystems Mission Area. 1. Furthermore, they can account for a large proportion of total island area (i.e., 12–14% on the islands of Yap, Pohnpei, or Kosrae) (MacLean et al. 2010), but it is not clear how this will impact other ecological parameters of Pacific Island mangroves (e.g., forest structure, mangrove productivity). 2007). 1) (McKee et al. When this organic matter dies, a proportion of it forms the sediment underneath the mangrove forest. SLR is expected to have the greatest impact on spatially compact Pacific Island mangroves compared to larger continental forests (McLeod and Salm 2006, Alongi 2008). Instead, low island mangrove soils are largely maintained by the accumulation of vegetative detritus and below‐ground root growth and to a lesser extent coralline derived sediments (Ellison 2000, Gilman et al. The regional perspective of this review has drawn attention to the numerous geographical knowledge gaps of climate change impacts, with some regions particularly understudied, such as Africa and the Middle East. Mangrove forests grow in intertidal zones and estuary mouths between land and sea. Description. 2013), which will likely decrease pore water salinities and sulfate concentrations resulting in increased mangrove production (Snedaker 1995, Ellison 2000, Gilman et al. Of all the outcomes from changes in the atmosphere's composition and … This community type is composed of freeze-sensitive tree species and, with some limited exceptions, mangroves which are distributed south of … Although most are found within 30 degrees of the Equator some hardy varieties such as those found in New Zealand have adapted themselves to temperate climates. Low island mangroves include embayment, harbor, and inland mangroves. Research suggests that mangroves could be better carbon stores than the coastal habitats they are encroaching on – opening the possibility for mangroves to combat the very causes of global warming. Around the world, some mangrove forests are being given legal protection and large-scale restoration works are taking place with varying degrees of success, as one study in Sri Lanka found. For example, SET measurements over a 6‐yr time period on the high islands of Kosrae and Pohnpei in the Federated States of Micronesia revealed that fringe mangroves were the most vulnerable to SLR compared to riverine or interior sites (Krauss et al. A recent study found that mangrove forests could be adapting to climate change by growing beyond their usual range. The knowledge that mangroves could both benefit from a changing climate and protect us from some of its worst effects demands a renewed vigour in promoting these wetlands. Effects of oil exposure, plant species composition, and plant genotypic diversity on salt marsh and mangrove assemblages. Mangrove expansion and contraction at a poleward range limit: climate extremes and land‐ocean temperature gradients. Furthermore, while mangroves in the region currently appear to be quite resilient to typhoons (Kauffman and Cole 2010, MacKenzie and Cormier 2012), it is not clear how their response to typhoons will vary in a changing climate, under increased development pressures, or the combination of both. While such losses of mangroves would have severe implications for many island nations as mangroves are vital components of Pacific Island subsistence economies, island institutional capacity may increase the ability of future management actions and coastal planning to aid in the ability of mangroves to migrate inland. These swamp communities are usually composed of red mangrove, black mangrove, and white mangrove. © 2020 Ecological Society of America. These trees can range about halfway up the coast of the Florida peninsula due to mild winter climate and the moderating effect of the warm waters of the Gulf of Mexico on the west coast … Distribution of mangroves and the location of mangrove RSETs in Australia and New Zealand (NZ). Christian Dunn does not work for, consult, own shares in or receive funding from any company or organisation that would benefit from this article, and has disclosed no relevant affiliations beyond their academic appointment. For a mangrove swamp forest to flourish, it requires a tropical climate, saltwater, tidal movement and a substrate of fine grained silt, according to "The Ecology of the Mangroves of South Florida." The intertidal plant communities in north‐eastern Australia, their carbon stores and vulnerability to extreme climate events. Mangrove swamps are coastal wetlands found in tropical and subtropical regions. Melbourne, Victoria, PANDEMIC AND RESILIENCE POLICY: EXECUTIVE CERTIFICATE In coastal wetlands along the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic coasts of the United States, freeze events govern the northern extent of mangrove forests. — These actions include protecting coastal areas that currently support mangroves from the construction of coastal engineering structures to prevent coastal erosion, determining adequate setbacks by assessing site‐specific rates for landward migration, and in areas where development is deemed necessary, the construction of expendable or portable structures (Gilman et al. Humans have become adept at destroying natural habitats. 2012 ). (2007) predict that the extent of Pacific Island mangroves could be reduced by 12.4%, largely due to their inability to migrate inland. Washington, DC 20036phone 202-833-8773email: Please check your email for instructions on resetting your password. Mangroves are coastal forests that grow in the tidewater of tropical and semitropical regions. This review has indicated how predicted changes to precipitation regimes and temperature are likely to influence mangroves and suggested potential future threats to regions such as South America and West Africa, which are currently not influenced by storm surges. 2010). — In areas with high precipitation such as some Pacific Islands, increased available sediment from terrestrial sources and litterfall together with increased nutrient inputs can lead to increased tree growth and an increase in surface elevation. in press). The Global Peatland Initiative , brings together UN agencies, governments, and NGOs to support countries in the conservation, better management and restoration of peatlands, and to facilitate South-South cooperation. It’s been suggested that the majority of the global fish catch relies, either directly or indirectly, on mangroves. Mangrove conservation laws were put into place because mangrove swamps were greatly reduced by land development. Sites to the right of the line show a rate of elevation change lower than local SLR. In the early 1970s, Similarly, during periods of drought, mangroves are likely to be less resistant to the impacts of storms. I. This ensures mangroves can actually act as giant stores – or sinks - of carbon. They require warm saline water—hence their distribution along tropical coastlines. Africa - Africa - Mangrove swamp: Mangroves include a variety of species of broad-leaved, shrubby trees (10–40 feet high) that fringe muddy creeks and tidal estuaries. Not to mention destroying their natural water courses and polluting the ground they grow in. Their mass of roots –- both above and below ground – help to bind and build sediments, meaning mangrove areas can grow vertically, which is a clear asset in the face of rising sea levels. The Future of Sediment Transport and Streamflow Under a Changing Climate and the Implications for Long‐Term Resilience of the San Francisco Bay‐Delta. A collection of mangrove trees in an area makes up a mangrove habitat, mangrove swamp or mangrove forest. Annual totals by component in selected species, Factors influencing biodiversity and distributional gradients in mangroves, Vegetation change in equatorial West Africa: time‐slices for the last 150 ka, How South Pacific mangroves may respond to predicted climate change and sea‐level rise, Climate change in the South Pacific: impacts and responses in Australia, New Zealand, and small island states, Vulnerability assessment of mangroves to climate change and sea‐level rise impacts, Mangrove ecosystem collapse during predicted sea level rise: Holocene analogues and implications, Vulnerability to climate change of mangroves: assessment from Cameroon, Central Africa, Mangrove expansion and rainfall patterns in Moreton Bay, southeast Queensland, Australia, Food production and ecosystem management on Yap, Impacts of expected climate change on mangroves, Are mangroves in the tropical Atlantic ripe for invasion? Variability in the fundamental versus realized niches of North American mangroves,, Very likely (+ West & South east) otherwise no change. DAF acknowledges the Asia Pacific Network for Global Change Research (ARCP2014‐14NMY(B&ES)) and the National University of Singapore (R‐109‐000‐141‐133/R‐109‐000‐184‐720/R‐109‐000‐158‐646), who have funded sea level rise vulnerability monitoring for several sites in South east Asia. Mangrove animals: While species diversity depends on the vegetation present, a wide diversity of wildlife is typical in mangrove ecosystems. Information from these studies will not only increase our understanding of how Pacific Island mangroves are responding to climate change, it can also be used to identify mangroves that may be more resilient to the impacts of climate change and can continue to provide societal benefits to the region (Naylor and Drew 1998). Mangrove plants are halophytic (salt-tolerant) plant species, of which there are more than 12 families and 80 species worldwide. Caribbean mangroves adjust to rising sea level through biotic controls on change in soil elevation, Response of salt marsh and mangrove wetlands to changes in atmospheric CO, Global change and the function and distribution of wetlands, Managing mangroves for resilience to climate change. The risk of several days of continuous frost, which previously kept these trees in tropical and subtropical areas near the equator, is continuously shifting towards the poles. 2014). A mangrove is a shrub or small tree that grows in coastal saline or brackish water. However, other climate change impacts in the Pacific region could potentially influence the resilience of mangroves to SLR. Sea level rise is regionally variable and is likely to have a lesser impact in areas with high sediment availability, uplifting or stable coasts, high productivity, and large tidal ranges such as the Amazon estuary and Parnaiba delta. Latitudinal limits, ecoregions, and location of mangroves in South America. Bangor University provides funding as a member of The Conversation UK. These differences in accumulation rates related to high vs. low mangrove island suggest that high island mangroves may be less vulnerable to SLR (McLeod and Salm 2006, Alongi 2008) and these high island mangroves are currently keeping pace with regional SLR (2.0–4.0 mm/yr) (Church et al. Thus, mangrove forests offer a unique and highly efficient approach to climate … All rights reserved. Data derived from Giri et al. 2003, MacKenzie et al. Increased rainfall has and is expected to continue to result in reduced ocean water salinities (Brown et al. Surface elevation change evaluation in mangrove forests using a low‐cost, rapid‐scan terrestrial laser scanner. Mangrove species are also expected to shift from more salt‐tolerant species to species that prefer lower salinities, although this has yet to be documented in this region (Ellison 2000). Linear and nonlinear effects of temperature and precipitation on ecosystem properties in tidal saline wetlands. 2015) and as a result an increase in typhoon intensity (Zhang et al. The accumulation of organic matter as well as the retention of upland soils can positively influence surface accretion rates in mangroves (Krauss et al. Mangroves line the world’s coastlines and prefer warm temperatures, so they have traditionally been restricted to subtropical and tropical environments. ESA Headquarters1990 M Street, NWSuite 700 Or should we concentrate our efforts on helping expand habitats that are not only resilient to climate change but can help mitigate climate change itself? Acute salt marsh dieback in the Mississippi River deltaic plain: a drought‐induced phenomenon? Bottlenecks, thresholds and knowledge gaps to mangrove and saltmarsh ecosystems, The present and future role of coastal wetland vegetation in protecting shorelines: answering recent challenges to the paradigm, Assessment of mangrove response to projected relative sea‐level rise and recent historical reconstruction of shoreline position, Threats to mangroves from climate change and adaptation options: a review, Adapting to Pacific Island mangrove responses to sea level rise and climate change, Status and distribution of mangrove forests of the world using earth observation satellite data, Mapping and monitoring Louisiana's mangroves in the aftermath of the 2010 Gulf of Mexico oil spill, Scanning the conservation horizon: a guide to climate change vulnerability assessment, Mangroves response to climate change: a review of recent findings on mangrove extension and distribution, Gradients in coral reef communities exposed to muddy river discharge in Pohnpei, Micronesia, Saloum Delta, Senegal; Andranopasy, Madagascar; Congo River, DR Congo and Angola; and Aldabra Atoll, Seychelles, Interannual climate variability in South America: impacts on seasonal precipitation, extreme events, and possible effects of climate change, Climate change and interannual variability of precipitation in South America, ENSO and extreme rainfall events in South America, The role of mega dams in reducing sediment fluxes: a case study of large Asian rivers, Comparison of flooding‐tolerance in four mangrove species in a diurnal tidal zone in the Beibu Gulf, Mangrove expansion and population structure at a planted site, East London, South Africa, Intra‐ and interspecific facilitation in mangroves may increase resilience to climate change threats, Climate change 2013: the physical science basis, Climate change 2014: impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability, Climate change in the South American monsoon system: present climate and CMIP5 projections, Micronesian mangrove forest structure and tree responses to a severe typhoon, Impacts of climate change and sea‐level rise: a preliminary case study of Mombasa, Kenya, Climate change projections over South America in the late 21st century with the 20 and 60 km mesh Meteorological Research Institute atmospheric general circulation model (MRI‐AGCM), Spatio‐temporal patterns of recent and future climate extremes in the Eastern Mediterranean and Middle East region, Differential rates of vertical accretion and elevation change among aerial root types in Micronesian mangrove forests, Woody debris in the mangrove forests of south Florida, Effects of season, rainfall, and hydrogeomorphic setting on mangrove tree growth in Micronesia, Environmental drivers in mangrove establishment and early development: a review, Surface elevation change and susceptibility of different mangrove zones to sea‐level rise on Pacific High Islands of Micronesia, Sea‐level rise and landscape change influence mangrove encroachment onto marsh in the Ten Thousand Islands region of Florida, USA, How mangrove forests adjust to rising sea level, Rapid losses of surface elevation following tree girdling and cutting in tropical mangroves, The combined impact on the flooding in Vietnam's Mekong River delta of local man‐made structures, sea level rise, and dams upstream in the river catchment, Litter production and seasonality of mangroves in Papua New Guinea, Climate change and impacts in the Eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East, Sea level rise and tigers: predicted impacts to Bangladesh's Sundarbans mangroves, Intense storms and the delivery of materials that relieve nutrient limitations in mangroves of an arid zone estuary, The vulnerability of Indo‐Pacific mangrove forests to sea‐level rise, Sea level and turbidity controls on mangrove soil surface elevation change, Impacts of riparian forest removal on Palauan streams, Stand structure influences nekton community composition and provides protection from natural disturbance in Micronesian mangroves, Sedimentation and belowground carbon accumulation rates in mangrove forests that differ in diversity and land use: a tale of two mangroves, Timber resources of Kosrae, Pohnpei, Truk, and Yap, Federated States and Micronesia, A long‐term hydrologically based dataset of land surface fluxes and states for the conterminous United States, Climate model based consensus on the hydrologic impacts of climate change to the Rio Lempa basin of Central America, Where temperate meets tropical: multi‐factorial effects of elevated CO. Distribution of mangroves and the recent expansion of mangrove RSETs in Asia (2010–2015). Using the upper IPCC projections for SLR, Gilman et al. Another problem, to no surprise, is climate change. 2007), although Strauch et al. Climate Climate. Mangrove forests typically grow in tidal regions in tropical and subtropical climates. 2007, Alongi 2008, Krauss et al. (2014) demonstrated that sediment loads can actually increase with decreasing rainfall in Hawaii due to decreases in drying periods resulting in greater soil cohesion in catchments. Mangroves protect coastlines, treat polluted waters, provide livelihoods and resources for some of the world’s poorest people and are home to an impressive number of species – many of which are commercially important. Mangroves occur worldwide in the tropics and subtropics, mainly between latitudes 25° N and 25° S. The various geomorphological settings in which mangroves in Africa can be found. — Data derived from Giri et al. Especially in the tropical Mangrove Forests, there are often extreme weather patterns, like tsunamis or hurricanes. Conceptual framework principal impacting factors of climate change and how they are likely to negatively influence mangrove communities. Preferred climate Mangroves are tropical plants, killed by freezing temperatures. Despite their value, humans have also done an impressive job over the last century of destroying them to make way for coastal developments, aquaculture and by logging them for timber and fuel production. The saline areas of the world consist of salt marshes of the temperate zones, mangrove swamps of the subtropics and tropics, and their interior salt marshes adjacent to salt lakes. Mangrove communities globally are expected to be substantially influenced by climate change‐related physical processes in the future. Mangroves are tropical species, surviving at temperatures above 66° F (19° C), not tolerating fluctuations exceeding 18° F (10° C) or temperatures below freezing for any length of time. Such effects are likely to be seen in drier regions, such as Texas in North America. Black line = 1:1 line. The positive impact of not-for-profits This association of organic matter accumulation and mineral soil retention suggests that increased rainfall in some areas may actually have a positive impact on Pacific Island mangroves. Number of times cited according to CrossRef: Land use impacts on benthic bioturbation potential and carbon burial in Brazilian mangrove ecosystems. The average economic value of mangrove swamps has been estimated Mangrove swamps pro-vide breeding, nursing, and feeding grounds for approximately 2,000 species of fish, invertebrates, and plants. mangrove crab. Mangrove Swamps Climate Mangrove swamps occur along tropical and subtropical coastlines. 1996, MacKenzie 2008), which will limit the ability of mangroves to migrate inland. The frequency of El Niño events is also expected to increase in a warmer climate (Cai et al. (. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems. — Increased rainfall will likely positively influence high island mangroves due to increased sediment loads (Krauss et al. For example, over the last 50 yr precipitation has generally increased north east of the Southern Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) and declined to the south (Brown et al. (. Mangrove forests are coastal wetlands made up of a dense jumble of trees and shrubs capable of living in salt or brackish water. Conversely mangroves in semiarid areas with predicted decreases in future precipitation such as the Middle East and north east Brazil are likely to suffer from increases in salt‐stress and resultant decreases in productivity combined with decreases in sediment input. 2008). Sensitivity of mangrove soil organic matter decay to warming and sea level change. These data will also allow us to examine how mangroves are responding to changes in rates of SLR and how this response varies among different types of mangroves (i.e., high island vs. low island atolls, oceanic vs. deltaic). So the possibility that climate change could be benefiting these habitats is promising indeed. These wetlands are often found in estuaries, where fresh water meets salt water and are infamous for their impenetrable maze of woody vegetation. General circulation models as well as various downscaled models predict that islands in the western Pacific will experience increased amounts and potentially more intense rainfall events. Masterclass series, Victoria, Structurally weak actors? A comparison of surface elevation change rates and SLR (recorded over the same time period) for various sites in East and South Australia. 2008), but to the fact that the low, constant elevation of low atoll islands provides no inland refuge for landward migration. Rod Surface Elevation Table (RSET) within mangroves measuring short‐term (annual) sediment accretion taking into account subsidence. Mangroves Mangroves occur in the waterlogged, salty soils of sheltered tropical and subtropical shores. Black, red, and white mangroves are viviparous, meaning their seeds germinate while still on the tree and begin to develop before dropping off.. Florida's Ten Thousand Islands is one of the largest mangrove swamps in the world. Additional studies are also needed to measure sediment accretion rates with both radionuclides and RSETs as well as studies measuring root growth and resultant surface elevation change. The risk of several days of … Tropical cyclones do not form close to the equator and there is only one recorded tropical cyclone recorded along the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of South America. The positive impact of not-for-profits, Te Mana o te Moana: Pacific Report Launch in Partnership with Greenpeace, Dean, Learning & Teaching, Engineering & Technology, EXECUTIVE ASSISTANT TO THE GROUP CEO & DIRECTOR OF ADMINISTRATION, ASIALINK, Bioinformatics Research Officer and/or Research Assistant | Parental Leave Cover, Lecturer in Construction Project Management. Mangrove forests thrive in a warming climate – and we should embrace this. In this way, mangroves act as Earth’s natural defences to climate change –- protecting the planet by striking at the very cause of the problem. They are subject to the twice-daily ebb and flow of tides, fortnightly spring and neap tides, and seasonal weather fluctuations. 2015). Animals in the Swamps Mangroves are woody, specialized types of trees of the tropics that can live on the edge, where rainforests meet oceans. One feature of mangroves that we’ve long benefited from is the protection they offer to our coastlines. 1988, Falanruw 1994) and many island peoples rely on mangrove forests as their main source of fiber, fuel, or food. RDW acknowledges the Rising Stars Initiative (University of Brighton), the Federal University of Para, Federal University of Parana, Federal University of Ceara, and the Federal University of São Paulo for funding and logistical support in sea level rise vulnerability analysis in South America. Expanding mangrove forests could therefore help protect us from the devastating effects of extreme weather that become more likely with climate change. in press). Data derived from Giri et al. Recent improvements to the sedimentation‐erosion table, Mass tree mortality leads to mangrove peat collapse at Bay Islands, Honduras after Hurricane Mitch, Coastal wetland vulnerability to relative sea‐level rise: wetland elevation trends and process controls, Increasing frequency of extreme El Niño events due to greenhouse warming, Sediment and nutrient deposition associated with hurricane Wilma in mangroves of the Florida Coastal Everglades, Allocation of biomass and net primary productivity of mangrove forests, Poleward expansion of mangroves is a threshold response to decreased frequency of extreme cold events, Sea‐level rise from the late 19th to the early 21st century, Sea‐level rise at tropical Pacific and Indian Ocean islands, Primary productivity and growth of mangrove forests, Mangrove ecosystems in Australia: structure, function and management, Convergence of three mangrove species towards freeze‐tolerant phenotypes at an expanding range edge, Modelling both dominance and species distribution provides a more complete picture of changes to mangrove ecosystems under climate change, On climate variability in Northeast of Brazil, Simulating sea‐level rise impacts on mangrove ecosystem adjacent to anthropic areas: the case of Maranhão Island, Brazilian Northeast, Hydrology of tidal freshwater forested wetlands of the southeastern United States, Ecology of tidal freshwater forested wetlands of the southeastern United States, Wind damage effects of Hurricane Andrew on mangrove communities along the southwest coast of Florida, USA, Predicting the retreat and migration of tidal forests along the northern Gulf of Mexico under sea‐level rise, Mangrove litter fall in north‐eastern Australia. (. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, In these areas, there are usually relatively high temperatures (70-80 degrees Fahrenheit) and significant amounts of precipitation (4.5 meters). Mangroves form dense, brackish-water swamps along low-energy shorelines and in protected, tidally influenced bays of southern Florida. — The roots of mangroves provide shelter and nursery habitat for juvenile fish. Increased development over the past few decades has resulted in barriers along Pacific Island coasts (e.g., roads, buildings, bridges) (Merlin et al. Unlike high island mangroves, there is not a large supply of upland sediments. Mangrove forests can grow along the edges of interior lagoons in some Pacific atolls (e.g., the Marshall Islands) (Woodroffe 1987), but these mangroves will eventually drown as they have no landward position to migrate to under increased rates of sea level rise. Man-grove swamps help protect the coast from erosion and reduce damage from hurricanes (called typhoons in Asia and the Pacific). The total annual rainfall in a Mangrove Forest varies from 1000 to 1500 mm The average monthly temperatures in a Mangrove Forest vary from a minimum of 25.0 degrees Celsius in January to 27.8 degrees Celsius in February Saline soils are abundant in semi-arid and arid regions where the amount of rainfall is insufficient for substantial leaching. Mangrove Forests. ACTON, ACT, Australian Capital Territory, Te Mana o te Moana: Pacific Report Launch in Partnership with Greenpeace Sites to the left of the line show a rate of elevation change greater than local SLR. High rainfall in these tropical wet regions results in high loads of freshwater, nutrients, and terrigenous sediments that sustain these ecosystems (Ellison 2000). (, Distribution of mangroves in the Middle East. 2013). Many climate model simulations indicate that winter temperatures may warm in the coming decades; if that were to occur, it is The term is also used for tropical coastal vegetation consisting of such species. Data derived from Giri et al. A mangrove understory contains mangrove ferns, but few other species can survive the shady, high salinity conditions. Towards Strategic Leadership - In a Time of Prolonged Crisis, PANDEMIC AND RESILIENCE POLICY: EXECUTIVE CERTIFICATE, Structurally weak actors? Conservationists and academics are researching where mangrove restoration would be most beneficial, and developing the best methods for these projects around the world. They anchor … It also raises a question. But there may be signs the natural world is fighting back by protecting itself against rising temperatures and changing weather patterns, and we face the tantalising prospect of helping this process. The GMA provides one way to take action on mangrove conservation and restoration towards climate mitigation and adaptation. Waves lose their power passing through dense mangrove forests, and they can offer protection from storms, typhoons, hurricanes and tsunamis. They are characterized by halophytic (salt loving) trees, shrubs and other plants growing in brackish to saline tidal waters. RAM acknowledges the USDA Forest Service Pacific South West Research Station and the U.S. Agency for International Development, who have funded sea level rise vulnerability monitoring for several sites in South east Asia and the western Pacific. However, the wide variation in mangrove ecosystem characteristics within and among regions allows us to tease apart the processes that control vulnerability and resiliency to the varied impacts of climate change. During the Quaternary, mangroves experienced a sea level that was 120–125 m lower than present at the Last Glacial Maximum, with two periods of very rapid rise (>20 m) at both 14 and 11 ky BP as a result of quite abrupt climatic shifts during the transition from the last glacial into the present interglacial [ 12 ]. This review has highlighted the extreme regional variation in mangrove communities, their biodiversity, threats, protection, climatic influences, and level of understanding. 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There has been little research conducted on current and changing sedimentary dynamics outside of the main research centers (Central/North America, the Pacific and Australia/New Zealand, and only recently South east Asia and South America) and there are few inter‐regional comparisons upon which to study large‐scale processes that could influence how mangroves respond to climate change on regional scales. They stretch from the intertidal zone up to the high-tide mark. Climate change is likely to have a substantial impact on mangrove ecosystems (Ellison 2015 ), through processes including sea level rise (SLR), changing ocean currents, increased storminess, increased temperature, changes in precipitation and increased CO 2 (Fig. As a result, carbon remains trapped as semi-decomposed plant matter, and is unable to re-enter the atmosphere as a greenhouse gas. Mangrove dieback can occur when habitats are managed poorly. In the long run, this could help society adapt to climate change and even reduce the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Influences of temperature are regionally variable with no recorded change in latitudinal distribution as a result of temperature increase in South America, whereas in North America and South Africa there has been an increase in the latitudinal distribution of mangroves. (. 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